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A virus particle must work as a safe box for protecting its genome, but at the same time it has to undergo dramatic conformational changes in order to preserve itself by propagating in a cell infection. Thus, viruses are miniaturized wonders whose structural complexity requires them to be investigated by a combination of different techniques that can tackle both static and dynamic processes. In this chapter we will illustrate how major structural techniques such as X-ray crystallography and electron microscopy have been and can be combined with other techniques to determine the structure of complex viruses. The power of these hybrid method approaches are revealed through the various examples provided.

Original publication




Journal article


Subcell Biochem

Publication Date





203 - 246


Animals, Crystallography, X-Ray, Humans, Microscopy, Electron, Models, Molecular, Viruses