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Oncogene-induced senescence represents a key tumor suppressive mechanism. Here, we show that Ras oncogene-induced senescence can be mediated by the recently identified haploinsufficient tumor suppressor apoptosis-stimulating protein of p53 (ASPP) 2 through a novel and p53/p19(Arf)/p21(waf1/cip1)-independent pathway. ASPP2 suppresses Ras-induced small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)-modified nuclear cyclin D1 and inhibits retinoblastoma protein (Rb) phosphorylation. The lysine residue, K33, of cyclin D1 is a key site for this newly identified regulation. In agreement with the fact that its nuclear localization is required for its oncogenic activity, we show that nuclear cyclin D1 is far more potent than wild-type (WT) cyclin D1 in bypassing Ras-induced senescence. Thus, this study identifies SUMO modification as a positive regulator of nuclear cyclin D1, and reveals a new way by which cell cycle entry and senescence are regulated.

Original publication




Journal article


Cell Death Differ

Publication Date





304 - 314


Amino Acid Sequence, Animals, Cell Nucleus, Cellular Senescence, Cyclin D1, Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16, Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21, Fibroblasts, Mice, Molecular Sequence Data, Phosphorylation, Retinoblastoma Protein, SUMO-1 Protein, Tumor Suppressor Protein p53, Tumor Suppressor Proteins, ras Proteins