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Significance Vaccines are one of the most cost-effective public health tools in history and offer a means to probe the human immune system. Recent advances have applied the tools of systems biology to study immune responses to vaccination in humans. Here we describe the application of this “systems vaccinology” approach to studying immunity to vaccination of 14- to 24-mo-old children with the inactivated influenza vaccine, administered with or without the MF59 adjuvant. These results reveal important new insights about the dynamics of the innate and adaptive responses to vaccination in this population, and identify potential correlates of immunity to vaccination in children.

Original publication




Journal article


Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences


Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

Publication Date





1853 - 1858