The structure and function of a foot-and-mouth disease virus-oligosaccharide receptor complex.
Fry EE., Lea SM., Jackson T., Newman JW., Ellard FM., Blakemore WE., Abu-Ghazaleh R., Samuel A., King AM., Stuart DI.
Heparan sulfate has an important role in cell entry by foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). We find that subtype O1 FMDV binds this glycosaminoglycan with a high affinity by immobilizing a specific highly abundant motif of sulfated sugars. The binding site is a shallow depression on the virion surface, located at the junction of the three major capsid proteins, VP1, VP2 and VP3. Two pre-formed sulfate-binding sites control receptor specificity. Residue 56 of VP3, an arginine in this virus, is critical to this recognition, forming a key component of both sites. This residue is a histidine in field isolates of the virus, switching to an arginine in adaptation to tissue culture, forming the high affinity heparan sulfate-binding site. We postulate that this site is a conserved feature of FMDVs, such that in the infected animal there is a biological advantage to low affinity, or more selective, interactions with glycosaminoglycan receptors.