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The binding sites for the allosteric activator, AMP, to glycogen phosphorylase b are described in detail utilizing the more precise knowledge of the native structure obtained from crystallographic restrained least-squares refinement than has hitherto been available. Localized conformational changes are seen at the allosteric effector site that include shifts of between 1 and 2 A for residues Tyr75 and Arg309 and very small shifts for the region of residues 42 to 44 from the symmetry-related subunit. Kinetic studies demonstrate that NADH inhibits the AMP activation of glycogen phosphorylase b. Crystallographic binding studies at 3.5 A resolution show that NADH binds to the same sites on the enzyme as AMP, i.e. the allosteric effector site N, which is close to the subunit-subunit interface, and the nucleoside inhibitor site I, which is some 12 A from the catalytic site. The conformations of NADH at the two sites are different but both conformations are "folded" so that the nicotinamide ring is close (approx. 6 A) to the adenine ring. These conformations are compared with those suggested from solution studies and with the extended conformations observed in the single crystal structure of NAD+ and for NAD bound to dehydrogenases. Possible mechanisms for NADH inhibition of phosphorylase activation are discussed.

Type

Journal article

Journal

J Mol Biol

Publication Date

25/10/1983

Volume

170

Pages

529 - 565

Keywords

Adenosine Monophosphate, Allosteric Site, Animals, Binding Sites, Crystallography, Enzyme Activation, Kinetics, Macromolecular Substances, Molecular Conformation, NAD, Phosphorylase b, Phosphorylases, Protein Conformation, Rabbits