Anchoring a secreted plasmodium antigen on the surface of recombinant vaccinia virus-infected cells increases its immunogenicity.
Langford CJ., Edwards SJ., Smith GL., Mitchell GF., Moss B., Kemp DJ., Anders RF.
We show that the subcellular location of foreign antigens expressed in recombinant vaccinia viruses influences their effectiveness as immunogens. Live recombinant viruses induced very poor antibody responses to a secreted repetitive plasmodial antigen (the S-antigen) in rabbits and mice. The poor response accords with epidemiological data suggesting that S-antigens are poorly immunogenic. Appending the transmembrane domain of a membrane immunoglobulin (immunoglobulin G1) to its carboxy terminus produced a hybrid S-antigen that was no longer secreted but was located on the surface of virus-infected cells. This recombinant virus elicited high antibody titers to the S-antigen. This approach will facilitate the use of live virus delivery systems to immunize against a wide range of foreign nonsurface antigens.