Kinetics of immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 proteins in individuals with varying severity of infection and following a single dose of the AZD1222
Jayathilaka D., Jeewandara C., Gomes L., Jayadas TTP., Kamaladasa A., Somathilake G., Guruge D., Pushpakumara PD., Ranasinghe T., Aberathna IS., Danasekara S., Gunathilaka B., Kuruppu H., Wijewickrama A., Wijayamuni R., Schimanski L., Tan TK., Ogg GS., Townsend A., Malavige GN.
Abstract To characterize the IgG and IgA responses to different SARS-CoV-2 proteins, we investigated the antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 following natural infection and following a single dose of AZD1222 (Covishield), in Sri Lankan individuals. The IgG and IgA responses were assessed to S1, S2, RBD, and N proteins in patients at 4 weeks and 12 weeks since the onset of illness or following vaccination. Antibodies to the receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 wild type (WT), α, β, and λ and ACE2 (Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2) receptor blocking antibodies were also assessed in these cohorts. For those with mild illness and in vaccines, the IgG responses to S1, S2, RBD, and N protein increased from 4 weeks to 12 weeks, while it remained unchanged in those with moderate/severe illness. In the vaccines, IgG antibodies to the S2 subunit had the highest significant rise (P < 0.0001). Vaccines had several-fold lower IgA antibodies to all the SARS-CoV-2 proteins tested than those with natural infection. At 12 weeks, the haemagglutination test (HAT) titres were significantly lower to the α in vaccines and significantly lower in those with mild illness and in vaccines to β and for λ. No such difference was seen in those with moderate/severe illness. Vaccines had significantly less IgA to SARS-CoV-2, but comparable IgG responses those with natural infection. However, following a single dose vaccines had reduced antibody levels to the VOCs, which further declined with time, suggesting the need to reduce the gap between the two doses, in countries experiencing outbreaks due to VOCs.