A Complex Interplay among Virus, Dendritic Cells, T Cells, and Cytokines in Dengue Virus Infections
Dejnirattisai W., Duangchinda T., Lin C-LS., Vasanawathana S., Jones M., Jacobs M., Malasit P., Xu X-N., Screaton G., Mongkolsapaya J.
Abstract Severe dengue virus (DV) infections can cause the life-threatening condition dengue hemorrhagic fever, which is characterized by a severe plasma leak, thrombocytopenia, hemorrhage, and, in severe cases, circulatory collapse and death. There is now much evidence that pre-existing immunity to DV can enhance disease when an individual becomes infected on a second or sequential occasion. It has been shown that in contrast to infected dendritic cells (DC), noninfected bystander DC underwent maturation in dengue infection. In this study, we show that TNF-α and type I IFN contribute to the maturation of bystander DC, whereas the inhibition of DV-infected DC maturation can be overcome by activated T cells. Furthermore, IFN-γ-inducible chemokines, CXCL9, 10, and 11 produced by infected DC are greatly amplified in the presence of DV-specific T cells. The chemokine secretion is also enhanced in coculture of HUVEC with either DV-infected DC or activated T cells. Finally, we found a close correlation between the serum level of these three chemokines and disease severity.