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Interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) is a restriction factor that limits viral pathogenesis and exerts poorly understood immunoregulatory functions. Here, using human and mouse models, we demonstrate that IFITM3 promotes MyD88-dependent, TLR-mediated IL-6 production following exposure to cytomegalovirus (CMV). IFITM3 also restricts IL-6 production in response to influenza and SARS-CoV-2. In dendritic cells, IFITM3 binds to the reticulon 4 isoform Nogo-B and promotes its proteasomal degradation. We reveal that Nogo-B mediates TLR-dependent pro-inflammatory cytokine production and promotes viral pathogenesis in vivo, and in the case of TLR2 responses, this process involves alteration of TLR2 cellular localization. Nogo-B deletion abrogates inflammatory cytokine responses and associated disease in virus-infected IFITM3-deficient mice. Thus, we uncover Nogo-B as a driver of viral pathogenesis and highlight an immunoregulatory pathway in which IFITM3 fine-tunes the responsiveness of myeloid cells to viral stimulation.

Original publication




Journal article


Nature communications

Publication Date





Division of Infection and Immunity/Systems Immunity University Research Institute, Cardiff University, Cardiff, CF14 4XN, UK.