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Aim: To investigate exosomes as a noninvasive delivery tool for mammalian sperm. Materials & Methods: Exosomes were isolated from HEK293T cells and co-incubated with boar sperm in vitro. Results: Internalized exosomes were detected within 10 min of co-incubation. Computer-assisted sperm analysis and flow cytometry demonstrated that even after 5-h of exposure to exosomes, there were no significant deleterious effects with regard to sperm motility, viability, membrane integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential (p > 0.05), thus indicating that exosomes did not interfere with basic sperm function. Conclusion: HEK293T-derived exosomes interacted with boar sperm without affecting sperm function. Exosomes represent a versatile and promising research tool for studying sperm biology and provide new options for the diagnosis and treatment of male infertility.

Original publication




Journal article


Nanomedicine (London, England)

Publication Date





1965 - 1980


Nuffield Department of Women's & Reproductive Health, University of Oxford, Level 3, Women's Centre, John Radcliffe Hospital, OX3 9DU, Oxford, UK.


Spermatozoa, Semen, Animals, Swine, Humans, Sperm Motility, Male, Exosomes, HEK293 Cells